Публичный годовой отчет 2010
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Годовой отчёт Глоссарий

Глоссарий

АА1000 Stakeholders Engagement Standard АА1000 SES a generally applicable and accessible normative base for planning, execution, evaluation, informing and conducting of nonfinancial audit of quality of engagement with stakeholders in the course of reporting and accountability of organizations in the field of effective management.
Becquerel (Bq) a unit of activity of a nuclide in the radioactive source equal to one transformation per second.
Closed nuclear fuel cycle a nuclear fuel cycle where spent nuclear fuel is recycled to extract uranium and plutonium for reuse in new nuclear fuel.
Covenants limits provided by financial documentation (syndicated credit agreements, transactions of EUR bonds, etc.) for one or several companies. Covenants can prohibit some transactions and other legal actions as well as oblige to perform some actions (e.g. providing information) on a regular basis.
Depleted uranium uranium where uranium isotope U-235 content is lower than in natural uranium (e.g., uranium in spent fuel of nuclear reactors fueled with natural uranium).
Discharge of radioactive substances controlled ingress of radionuclides into reservoirs containing liquid waste of a nuclear installation (e.g., a nuclear power plant).
Division an economic entity having a regulation on interaction with ROSATOM defining it as a Division that manages companies incorporated into the Division’s activity.
Dose burden the sum of individual exposure doses received or anticipated during operation, maintenance, repair, replacement or dismantling of equipment at a nuclear installation, e.g. a nuclear power plant.
Enrichment (with regard to an isotope) а) the content of atoms in a specific isotope mixed with isotopes of the same element if it exceeds the proportion of the same isotope in naturally-occurring mixtures (expressed in percent); b) a process whereby the content of a specific isotope increases in an isotope mix.
Fast neutrons neutrons whose kinetic energy exceeds a specified value. This value can vary over a wide range and depends on its actual use (reactor physics, shielding or dose monitoring). This value is often set at 0.1 MeV in reactor physics.
First criticality the stage of commissioning a nuclear power plant that includes loading of nuclear fuel into the reactor, achieving criticality, and conduct of required physical experiments at a power level where heat is removed due to natural heat loss.
First power the commissioning stage of a nuclear power plant where the plant starts generating power and the plant’s performance at different power levels up to commercial power levels is checked.
Fuel assembly a set of fuel rods (rods, bars, plates, etc.) held together by spacer grids and other structural components and undetached during transportation and irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Fuel assemblies are loaded into the core of a nuclear reactor.
Fuel pellet a pellet of compacted uranium dioxide, which is the base for nuclear fuel; it is placed in fuel rods.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) an internationally adopted reporting system with regard to economic, ecological and social performance, which is based on the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, Protocols and Sector Supplements.
HEU Agreement the agreement concluded between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United States of America concerning utilization of enriched uranium extracted from nuclear weapons. Under this agreement, Russia undertakes to deliver over 20 years (until the end of 2013) to the USA low enriched uranium (LEU) produced from 500 tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU), extracted from nuclear weapons and designated by the Russian side as no longer required for defense purposes.
IAEA Safeguards a system of verification applicable to peaceful uses of atomic energy, which is established within the framework of the global nonproliferation policy; the International Atomic Energy Agency is entitled to implement this system.
International Standard on Assurance Engagements ISAE 3000 the international standard for auditing nonfinancial reports.
MOX fuel (Mixed-Oxide fuel) nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material. The term is mainly applied to plutonium blended with natural uranium, enriched or depleted uranium, which reacts similarly (although not identically) to LEU oxide and is used as fuel for the majority of nuclear reactors. One of the advantages of MOX fuel is that it is a way of utilizing surplus weapons-grade plutonium, which would otherwise be stored as nuclear waste.
Natural background ionizing radiation consisting of cosmic radiation and ionizing radiation of naturally distributed naturally-occurring radionuclides (on the surface of the Earth, in the air, food products, water, human bodies, etc.).
NPP Safety NPP's ability to ensure radiation safety of the personnel, general public and environment within established limits during normal operation and in case of accident.
Nuclear fuel a material containing fissionable nuclides which, if placed in a nuclear reactor, allows for nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear fuel cycle a sequence of production processes aimed at maintaining nuclear reactor operation; it starts with extraction of uranium and ends with disposal of radioactive waste.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) an international treaty on limitation of the arms race and aimed at preventing emergence of new nuclear-weapon states. The agreement stipulates that states possessing nuclear weapons shall not transfer nuclear weapons or control thereof to other parties, while non-nuclear weapons states shall refrain from production or acquisition of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
Nuclear power the sector of power engineering where atomic energy is used for electrification and district heating.
Nuclear safety a general term describing the capability of a nuclear installation to limit radiation effects on personnel, the general public and environment to acceptable limits during normal operation and accidents.
Operating organization an organization authorized by a regulatory authority to operate a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation.
Phase-Gate approach a planning and investment principle when investment projects are divided into phases separated by gates. At each gate, the continuation of the project is decided after a comprehensive analysis (Gate Review) of the results available at the time, including further plans and risk analysis.
Pilot operation the commissioning stage of a nuclear power plant that begins with the start of the first power program and ends with plant commissioning for commercial operation.
Radiation monitoring obtaining information on the radiation situation in an organization, environment, and on exposure of people (includes health physics and radiometry surveillance).
Radiation safety a set of measures aimed at limiting exposure of personnel and the general public to the lowest radiation dose values, which is achieved by publicly acceptable means, and at preventing early consequences of exposure and limiting delayed radiation effects to an acceptable level.
Radioactive waste nuclear materials and radioactive substances whose future use is not anticipated.
Recycling of spent nuclear fuel a set of chemical processes intended to remove fission products from spent nuclear fuel and recover fissionable material for reuse.
Release of radioactive substances ingress of radionuclides into the atmosphere due to a nuclear installation operation (e.g., nuclear power plant).
Research reactor a nuclear reactor intended as an object of research to acquire data on reactor physics and technologies required for design and development of similar reactors or their components.
Source of raw materials integrated reservoir volume of prospected and predicted resources with a high level of reliability.
Treatment of radioactive waste process operations aimed at changing the state of aggregation and (or) physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste, and carried out to convert it into forms acceptable for transportation, storage and (or) disposal.
Uranium conversion a chemical process for transformation of uraniumcontaining materials into uranium hexafluoride.
Uranium hexafluoride a chemical compound of uranium and fluorine (UF6). It is the only volatile uranium compound (when uranium hexafluoride is heated to 53°С, it changes directly from a solid to a gaseous state). UF6 is used as input feed for the separation of isotopes uranium-238 and uranium-235 by means of gas diffusion or gas centrifuge technology to produce enriched uranium.
Uranium ore enrichment a set of processes for primary processing of uranium-containing feed to separate uranium from other minerals that are part of the ore. This does not lead to changes in the composition of minerals but mechanically separates them to produce ore concentrate.
VVER a water-water power reactor where water is used as the coolant and the moderator. This reactor type is most widely used in Russia in two versions: VVER-440 and VVER-1000.

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